Lm2, motion fidelity for effective manual flight training


Why Lm2 ?

Loss of manual flying skills and Loss of Control (LoC) have been on the agenda of the aviation industry for over a decade. Flight handling remains a causal factor in around 30% of all worldwide jet and turboprop accidents.

More and better manual flight training is an important part of solving the problem. However until now, full flight simulators often failed to replicate the sensations of flying the real aircraft : Pilots often cannot apply the skills they learned in the simulator to the real aircraft because the handling feeling and response to rudder and aileron input are quite different in some regimes.

More manual flight training in the simulator therefore does not necessarily lead to better flying skills in the real aircraft. This is especially true for the visual part of the approach and during crosswind landing.

Many pilots also develop nausea in simulators due to the poor correlation between visual and motion cues.

Lm2 was engineered for pilots by a pilot to make a significant improvement in flight handling fidelity of your simulator.

Schermafbeelding 2013-12-16 om 17.33.01

What is Lm² ?

Lm2 stands for « Lateral maneuvering motion » and is a patented Full Flight Simulator (FFS) motion control method. It was engineered with the intention to match lateral visual and motion cues during pure stick and rudder manual flight. It results in better handling fidelity on ground and in the air and thereby increases the transfer of manual flight training and reduces the trigger of motion sickness.

Lm2 only affects the motion response from asymmetric aircraft motions following pilot input of aileron, -rudder, -tiller or from turbulence response. It is not a “special effect” but based on actual OEM flight model rigid body aircraft motion.

Lm2 was designed with the goal to improve manual flight handling fidelity in a training environment especially during approach and landing. Dedicated (and realistic) crosswind landing training and more realistic taxiing are some of its noticeable and innovative features.




Comparison Chart: Lateral acceleration at the pilot’s seat in a B737NG FFS, with alternating aileron input, G/D, Flaps 30



  • Lateral forces are perceived as in a real aircraft.
  • Lm2 improves transfer of (manual) flight training from the simulator to the aircraft and significantly increases the training value.
  • The control strategy trained in an Lm2 driven flight simulator is optimized and reflects control inputs while flying a real aircraft.
  • Improved training efficiency through risk reduction of simulator motion sickness.
  • Easier detection by instructors of student-pilot erroneous rudder input (crosswind, UPRT, engine-out).
  • Less PIO tendency during black-hole approaches.



Practical installation and implementation on a 6 D.O.F. FFS is done by a mark-up of the existing motion software. This is a straightforward process executed in co-operation with the simulator manufacturer. Lm2 does not involve any changes to the hardware. Both electric and hydraulic motion bases can be upgraded in the same way.

After installation and implementation, an AWx engineering pilot will validate the proper functioning of Lm2 on-site. This validation protocol typically includes a 4 hours test session on the Lm2 equipped FFS. A second session is foreseen to adapt to customers wishes.

Lm2 can be operated by an optional logical on/off switch (boolean). Note that during extreme maneuvering (not representative use), Lm2 may not always be able to deliver its optimum flight handling characteristics at all times.

Lm2 follows, but does not alter the OEM flight model (e.g. Boeing, Airbus) of your simulator. The Lm2 motion control method alters the asymmetric motion wash-out filter metrics. The use of Lm2 on your FFS may require rerunning certain QTG’s.